Atlanta-based author and primatologist Frans de Waal has observed animal behavior for 40 years. He's since challenged prevailing scientific notions of animals as stimulus response machines. His new book, Mama's Last Hug: Animal Emotions, details findings on jealousy and reconciliation.


Biologists have studied animal intelligence for years, but primatologist Frans de Waal believes we underestimate exactly how smart they are. He believes humans tend to observe animal behavior with their own exceptionalism in mind. He bridges the dividing line between humans and animals in his new book "Are We Smart Enough to Know How Smart Animals Are?